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Fascist and anti-Fascist violence in Italy (1919–1926)

And at the extreme right, you could imagine just complete free-market. Complete, unfettered, free-market. Ultra small government. And fascists and extreme nationalists, they didn't view themselves as either end of the spectrum. They kind of viewed themselves as a separate way where everything was subordinate. The economy itself was subordinate to the state. Now with that said, they tended to align themselves more with folks on the right. So even though they weren't completely free-market capitalists, they were staunchly anti-communist and anti-socialist, which caused them to form alliances a little bit more with the right.

But from their point of view, it wasn't one of these extreme right-wing ideologies that the government should be subordinate to the economy, that the government should be as small as possible. It was much more that the economy was there to serve national interests.

Some of the other ideologies that the fascists began to hold is this idea that force was a legitimate part of politics. So force in politics. And you would see this when Benito Mussolini's fascists, through the use of the Black Shirts, which was their paramilitary group, which allowed them to eventually take political control and enforce political control. And we later see it with other groups like the Nazis. Who are also tended to be associated with fascism. And their storm troopers and their storm battalions, their paramilitary forces, that are used to, essentially, take political control.

The Rise of Fascism

The other aspect of them-- and, as you could imagine, when we're talking about either Mussolini or the Nazis-- is that they weren't really fans of democracy. Not only did they think that everything should be subordinate to the state, but that the state should have absolute control. So it's not about democracy. It's about having a strong leader at the top. A strong one party at the top.

And in the case of Mussolini it was the fascists. In the case of Hitler it ends up being the Nazis.

So totalitarian. Completely totalitarian. And then, they also-- and these all gel together-- this idea of aggressive foreign policy. And this aggressive foreign policy is really rooted in this belief of cultural superiority.

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And, if you take the case of the Nazis, this belief in extreme racial superiority, cultural superiority. And I'm making a slight distinction there because in Mussolini's eyes, he was actually quite disparaging. When Mussolini came to power, in , he was leading a new movement in a country with a formidable cultural patrimony, and he knew that he needed a multitude of markers to imprint the Fascist ideology on the landscape. Public projects, such as the Foro Mussolini sports complex, in Rome, were meant to rival those of the Medici and the Vatican, while the likeness of Il Duce, as Mussolini was known, watched over Italians in the form of statues, photographs in offices, posters at tram stops, and even prints on bathing suits.

Marble statues of male athletes, erected in the Fascist era, at the Stadio dei Marmi in the Foro Italico sports complex, in Rome. In Germany, a law enacted in against Nazi apologism, which banned Hitler salutes and other public rituals, facilitated the suppression of Third Reich symbols. Ridding Italy of thousands of Fascist memorials would have been impractical, and politically imprudent, for the Allied forces whose priority was to stabilize the volatile country and limit the power of its growing Communist Party. This approach set a precedent.

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The Scelba Law was designed to block the reconstitution of the Fascist Party and was famously vague about everything else. This means that, when Berlusconi brought the right-wing Italian Social Movement Party to power, his rehabilitation of Fascism was aided by an existing network of pilgrimage sites and monuments. Like this gallery?

Share it: Share Tweet Email. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini walk by a row of saluting Italian soldiers during a visit from Germany's new chancellor. Venice, Italy.

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June Wikimedia Commons. Young boys in the fascist youth group, the Opera Nazionale Balilla. Date unspecified. A group of girls in the Littorio fascist youth group. The word "Duce" behind them is the title of dictator Benito Mussolini. Circa A stoic face stares down from the facade of the Fascist Party Federation building. Rome, Italy. Inside a massive Fascist Party rally. New York Public Library. A Nazi rally goes into full swing, held to welcome Italy's visiting German allies.

Milan, Italy. Benito Mussolini delivers a speech. May A public gymnastics display. Location unspecified. Two girls dressed up like members of the ancient Roman Empire.


Mussolini and Fascist Italy

Benito Mussolini waves at a massive crowd of supporters. The Italian and Nazi flags fly side-by-side. Children of the fascist youth consecrate a new flag, while dictator Mussolini looks on. October Students salute the Italian flag. Location and date unspecified.

Italy Under Mussolini | History of Western Civilization II

A group of young Italians in the Opera Nazionale Balilla fascist group. Soldiers in Italy's Black Brigades, the ruling party's paramilitary arm. An Italian soldier. The inauguration of Littoria, Italy, a city created by Mussolini's fascist party.